Y Gymraeg yn amod cyflogaeth: Cam derbyniol o safbwynt rhyddfrydol?

Y Gymraeg yn amod cyflogaeth: Cam derbyniol o safbwynt rhyddfrydol?
(Welsh as a job requirement: An acceptable step from a liberal perspective?)

Huw Lewis

Policies introduced to revive the prospects of minority languages have often been the source of substantial disquiet. At times, objections to these policies are expressed in moral terms, with certain measures being accused of transgressing normative principles such as individual freedom and equal opportunity. Given their nature, these moral objections pose interesting questions for liberals. Therefore, how should liberals respond? This article will explore this question by focusing on one controversial aspect of language policy in Wales: the steps taken to set Welsh-language requirements for some jobs in the public sector. This is a practice which has generated substantial debate, with opponents claiming that it undermines the liberal commitment to equality of opportunity in the field of employment and, in particular, transgresses the principle of appointing on the basis of merit. Do such arguments stand up to scrutiny? Do minority language requirements in the field of employment go beyond what liberals would consider acceptable, or can a coherent defence that is clearly rooted within a liberal framework be developed?


  	Huw Lewis, 'Y Gymraeg yn amod cyflogaeth: Cam derbyniol o safbwynt rhyddfrydol?'
, Gwerddon, 6, July 2010, 55-73.


    Language policy, minority language, employment, philosophy, liberalism.


  1. Barry, B. (2001), Culture and Equality (Cambridge: Polity Press).
  2. Beauchamp, T. L. (2002), ‘In Favour of Affirmative Action’, yn Cahn, S. M. (gol.), The Affirmative Action Debate (London: Routledge), tt.209–23.
  3. Brooks, S. (2006), ‘The Idioms of Race: The ‘Racist Nationalist’, yn ‘Wales as Bogeyman’, yn Chapman, R. (gol.), Idiom of Dissent (Llandysul: Gwasg Gomer), tt.139–65.
  4. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (1996), Cynlluniau Iaith Gymraeg: Eu Paratoi a’u Cymeradwyo yn Unol â Deddf Iaith Gymraeg 1993 (Caerdydd: Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg).
  5. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (2005), Cynllun Iaith Gymraeg – Cyngor Sir Gâr: Ymchwiliad o dan Adran 17 Deddf yr Iaith Gymraeg 1993. Ar gael o: www.byig-wlb.org.uk/cymraeg/cyhoeddiadau/pages/publicationitem.aspx?puburl=/cymraeg/cyhoeddiadau/cyhoeddiadau/3437.pdf [Cyrchwyd 28 Ebrill 2010].
  6. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (2008), Hyrwyddo Gweithleoedd Dwyieithog: Dogfen Ymgynghorol (Caerdydd: Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg).
  7. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (2009a), Recrwtio a’r Iaith Gymraeg: Cyngor o dan Adran 3 Deddf yr Iaith Gymraeg 1993 (Caerdydd: Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg).
  8. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (2009b), Mesur y Galw am Addysg Gymraeg: Dogfen Arferion Da (Caerdydd: Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg).
  9. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (2009c), Hyrwyddo a Hwyluso Gweithleoedd Dwyieithog (Caerdydd: Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg).
  10. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (2010), Gohebiaeth breifat parthed dadansoddiad gan yr ystadegydd Dr Hywel Jones, o ganlyniadau Cyfrifiad 2001 (T39). Ebyst dyddiedig Ebrill 21 a 30.
  11. Cahn, S. M. (2002), ‘Introduction’, yn Cahn, S. M. (gol.), The Affirmative Action Debate (London: Routledge), tt.xi-xiv.
  12. Carens, J. H. (2000), Culture, Citizenship and Community: A Contextual Exploration of Justice as Evenhandedness (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  13. Chevrier, M. (1997), Laws and Language in Québec: The Principles and Means of Québec’s Language Policy (Québec: Gouvernemet du Québec, Ministère des Relations Internationales).
  14. Chevrier, M. (2003), ‘A Language Policy for a Language in Exile’, yn Larrivée, P. (gol.), Linguistic Conflict and Language Laws: Understanding the Québec Case (London, Palgrave Macmillan), tt.118–61.
  15. Costa, J. (2003), ‘Catalan Linguistic Policy: Liberal or Illiberal?’, Nations and Nationalism, 9 (3), 413–32.
  16. Cwmni Iaith (2006), Cynllunio a Rheoli Sgiliau Dwyieithog: Astudiaeth ar ran Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg (Castellnewydd Emlyn: Cwmni Iaith).
  17. Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (1999), Dwyieithrwydd Gweithredol (Aberystwyth: Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg).
  18. Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru (2010), Mesur Arfaethedig y Gymraeg (Cymru). Ar gael o: www.cynulliadcymru.org/bus-home/bus-legislation/bus-leg-measures/business-legislationmeasures-wl.htm [Cyrchwyd 7 Mawrth 2010].
  19. Davies, G. P. (1994) ‘Yr Iaith Gymraeg a Deddfwriaeth’, yn Williams, Rh. H., Williams, H. a Davies, E. (goln), Gwaith Cymdeithasol a’r Iaith Gymraeg (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru), tt. 41–73.
  20. Dworkin, R. (2002), ‘Bakke’s Case: Are Quotas Unfair?’, yn Cahn, S. M. (gol.), The Affirmative Action Debate (London: Routledge), tt. 103–12.
  21. Employment Appeal Tribunal (1986), Gwynedd County Council v Jones, EAT 554/85.
  22. HMSO (1993), Deddf yr Iaith Gymraeg 1993 (London: HMSO).
  23. Jenkins, G. H. (1999), ‘Cymru, Cymry a’r Gymraeg: Rhagymadrodd’, yn Jenkins, G. H. (gol.), Gwnewch Bopeth yn Gymraeg: Yr Iaith Gymraeg a’i Pheuoedd 1801–1911 (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru), tt.1–34.
  24. Jenkins, G. H. a Williams, M. A. (2000), ‘Hynt yr Iaith Gymraeg 1900 – 2000: Rhagymadrodd’, yn Jenkins, G. H. a Williams, M. A. (goln), ‘Eu Hiaith a Gadwant’? Y Gymraeg yn yr Ugeinfed Ganrif (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru), tt.1–26.
  25. Kane’s Wales (1995) [Rhaglen Deledu], BBC1 Wales, 12 Tachwedd 1995.
  26. Kymlicka, W. (1989), Liberalism, Community and Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  27. Kymlicka, W. (1995a), ‘Introduction’, yn Kymlicka, W. (gol.), The Rights of Minority Cultures (Oxford: Oxford University Press), tt.1–27.
  28. Kymlicka, W. (1995b), Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  29. Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru (2008), Adroddiad Blynyddol Iaith Pawb a’r Cynllun Iaith Gymraeg 2007-08 (Caerdydd: Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru).
  30. Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru (2010), Strategaeth Addysg Cyfrwng Cymraeg (Caerdydd: Llywodraeth Cynulliad Cymru).
  31. May, S. (2000), ‘Accommodating and Resisting Minority Language Policy: The Case of Wales’, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 3 (2), 101–28.
  32. May, S. (2001), Language and Minority Rights: Ethnicity, Nationalism and the Politics of Language (New York: Longman).
  33. Miller, D. (1999), Principles of Social Justice (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press).
  34. Miller, D. (2002), ‘Liberalism, Equal Opportunities and Cultural Commitments’, yn Kelly, P. (gol.), Multiculturalism Reconsidered (Cambridge: Polity Press), tt. 45–61.
  35. McLeod, W. (1998), ‘Autochthonous Language Communities and the Race Relations Act’, Web Journal of Current Legal Issues. Ar gael o: www.webjcli.ncl.ac.uk/1998/issue1/ mcleoad.html [Cyrchwyd 9 Hydref 2009].
  36. Nelde, P., Strubell, M. a Williams, G. (1996), Euromosaic: The Production and Reproduction of the Minority Language Groups in the European Union (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities).
  37. Parekh, B. (2000), Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory (London: Macmillan).
  38. Rawls, J. (1971), A Theory of Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  39. Raz, J. (1994), ‘Multiculturalism: A Liberal Perspective’, Dissent, Gaeaf, 67–79.
  40. Rhieni Dros Addysg Gymraeg (2007), Maniffesto ar Gyfer Etholiad Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru 2007 (Casnewydd: RHAG).
  41. Spinner, J. (1994), The Boundaries of Citizenship: Race, Ethnicity and Nationality in the Liberal State (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).
  42. Supreme Court of Canada (1984), Attorney General of Québec v Quebec Protestant School Boards.
  43. Supreme Court of Canada (1988a), Ford v Attorney General of Québec.
  44. Supreme Court of Canada (1988b), Forget v Attorney General of Québec.
  45. Supreme Court of Canada (2005), Gosselin v Attorney General of Québec.
  46. Tamir, Y. (1993), Liberal Nationalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press).
  47. Tribunals Service: Employment (1998), Boylan v Isle of Anglesey County Council. Case No: 2900883/97.
  48. White, S. (2007), Equality (Cambridge: Polity Press).
  49. Williams, C. H. (2000), ‘On Recognition, Resolution and Revitalization’, yn Williams, C. H. (gol.), Language Revitalization: Policy and Planning in Wales (Cardiff: University of Wales Press), tt.1–47.
  50. Williams, G. (1988), ‘Discourse on Language and Ethnicity’, yn Coupland, N. (gol.), Styles of Discourse (London: Croom Helm), tt.254–92.
  51. Williams, G. (1994), ‘Discourse on ‘Nation’ and ‘Race’: A Response to Denney et al’, Contemporary Wales, 6, 87-103.
  52. Williams, G. a Morris, D. (2000), Language Planning and Language Use: Welsh in a Global Age (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).
  53. Williams, I. W. (gol.) (2002), Gorau Arf: Hanes Sefydlu Ysgolion Cymraeg 1939–2000 (Talybont: Y Lolfa).
  54. Young, I. M. (1990), Justice and the Politics of Difference (Princeton University Press: Princeton).