Seduir, seduce, més que dir que han de fer català: Astudiaeth o bolisïau iaith mewn addysg, integreiddio a mewnfudo rhyngwladol yng Nghatalwnia

Seduir, seduce, més que dir que han de fer català: Astudiaeth o bolisïau iaith mewn addysg, integreiddio a mewnfudo rhyngwladol yng Nghatalwnia
(Seduir, seduce, més que dir que han de fer català: A study of language-in-education policies, integration and international immigration in Catalonia)

Catrin Wyn Edwards

This article analyses immigration governance in Catalonia, specifically the language-in-education measures implemented to teach Catalan to immigrants. The article focuses specifically on the Voluntariat per la llengua (VxL) programme, which is the main activity of the Consorci per a la Normalització Lingüística (CPNL), the main formal provider of Catalan teaching for adults in Catalonia, and the role of Catalan speakers in efforts to integrate immigrants linguistically. It is argued that minority language speakers are central to the process of teaching Catalan to immigrants, and that their participation in linguistic policies and projects contributes to social cohesion and inter-group relations as well as to the sustainability of the Catalan language. Thus, with purposeful language planning, immigrants and minority language speakers can strengthen or renew the status of a minority language.


  	Catrin Wyn Edwards, ‘Seduir, seduce, més que dir que han de fer català: Astudiaeth o bolisïau iaith mewn addysg, integreiddio a mewnfudo rhyngwladol yng Nghatalwnia’, Gwerddon, 31, October 2020, 83-111.


    Immigration, Catalonia, language policy in education, Voluntariat per la llengua, interculturalism.


  1. Adam, I. (2013), ‘Immigrant Integration Policies of the Belgian Regions: Sub-state Nationalism and Policy Divergence after Devolution’, Regional & Federal Studies, 23 (5), 547–69.
  2. Arksey, H., a Knight, P. (1999), Interviewing for Social Scientists (Thousand Oaks: Sage).
  3. Augustyniak, A., a Higham, G. (2019), ‘Contesting sub-state integration policies: migrant new speakers as stakeholders in language regimes’, Language Policy, 18 (4), 513–33.
  4. Barker, F. (2010), ‘Learning to be a majority: Negotiating immigration, integration and national membership in Quebec’, Political Science, 62 (1), 11–36.
  5. Barker, F. (2015), Nationalism, Identity and the Governance of Diversity: Old Politics,  New Arrivals (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  6. Bauböck, R. (2001), ‘Cultural Citizenship, Minority Rights and Self-Government’, Aleinikoff, A., a Klusmeyer, D. (goln), Citizenship Today: Global Perspectives and Practices (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment).
  7. Bermingham, N., a Higham, G. (2018), ‘Immigrants as new speakers in Galicia and Wales: issues of integration, belonging and legitimacy’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 39 (5), 394–406.
  8. Blommaert, J. (2010), The Sociolinguistics of Globalization (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  9. Bouffard, P. (2015), ‘French language education policy for adult immigrants in Quebec’, Simpson, J., a Whiteside, A. (goln), Adult Language Education and Migration: Challenging
  10. Agendas in Policy and Practice (Abingdon: Routledge), tt. 49–65.
  11. Branchadell, A. (2015), ‘Language education for adult migrant in Catalonia: Nation-state ambitions without nation-state resources’, Simpson, J., a Whiteside, A. (goln), Adult Language Education and Migration: Challenging Agendas in Policy and Practice (Abingdon: Routledge), tt. 82–93.
  12. Burmeister, E., ac Aitken, L. M. (2012), ‘Sample size: How many is enough?’, Australian Critical Care, 25, 271–74.
  13. Castiñeira Fernández, Á. (2009), ‘Immigration in Multinational States: The case of Catalonia’, Zapata-Barrero, R. (gol.), Immigration and Self-government of Minority Nations (Bern: Peter Lang), tt. 163–76.
  14. Charmaz, K. (1990), ‘“Discovering” chronic illness: Using grounded theory’, Social Science and Medicine, 30, 1161–72.
  15. Consorci  per  a  la  Normalització  Lingüística  (2011),  Memòria   CPNL   2011  (Barcelona: Consorci per a la Normalització Lingüística).
  16. Consorci per a la Normalització Lingüística (2012), Voluntariat  per  la  llengua.  Dossier  de premsa (Barcelona: Consorci per a la Normalització Lingüística).
  17. Consorci  per  a  la  Normalització  Lingüística  (2018),  Memòria  del  CPNL  2018,  <https://> [Cyrchwyd: 16 Chwefror 2020].
  18. Conversi, D., a Jeram, S. (2017), ‘Despite the crisis: The resilience of intercultural nationalism in Catalonia’, International Migration, 55 (2), 53–67. < imig.12323>
  19. Davies, P. H. J. (2001), ‘Doing Politics. Spies as Informants: Triangulation and the Interpretation of Elite Interview Data in the Study of the Intelligence and Security Services’, Politics, 21 (1), 73–80.
  20. Denzin, N. K. (2012), ‘Triangulation 2.0’, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 6 (2), 80–8.
  21. Erk, J. (2003), ‘“Wat We Zelf Doen, Doen We Beter”: Belgian Substate Nationalisms, Congruence and Public Policy’, Journal of Public Policy, 23 (2), 201–24.
  22. European Commission (2005), Fifty ways to learn a new language (Brussels: European Commission).
  23. Ferrero-Turrión,  R.,  a  Pinyol-Jiménez,  G.  (2009),  ‘Immigration  and  the  construction  of public philosophy(ies) of integration in Spain’, yn Guild, E. et al. (goln), Illiberal Liberal States. Immigration, Citizenship and Integration in the EU (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing), tt. 337–56.
  24. Fishman, J. A. (1991), Reversing Language Shift: Theoretical and Empirical Foundations of Assistance to Threatened Languages (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).
  25. Fishman, J. A. (gol.) (2001), Can Threatened Languages be Saved? (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).
  26. Franco i Guillén, N. (2011), ‘Immigration en Catalogne: Politiques et Société’, Migrations Société, 23 (134–5), 83–93.
  27. Garrido, M. R., ac Oliva, X. (2015), ‘A Multilingual, collaborative and functional approach to nongovernmental Catalan classes’, yn Simpson, J., a Whiteside, A. (goln), Adult Language Education and Migration: Challenging Agendas in Policy and Practice (Abingdon: Routledge), tt. 94–106.
  28. Generalitat de Catalunya (2001), Pla Interdepartamental d’Immigració 2001–2004 (Barcelona: Departament de la Presidència).
  29. Generalitat de Catalunya (2003), Estadísticad’usos lingüístics a Catalunya 2003 (Barcelona: SPL/IDESCAT).
  30. Generalitat de Catalunya (2005), Pla de Ciutadania i Immigració 2005–2008 (Barcelona: Departament de Benestar i Família).
  31. Generalitat de Catalunya (2006), Loi organique nº 6/2006, du 19 juillet, de réforme du Statut d’autonomie de Catalogne. < _ frances _ 100506.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 6 Awst 2013].
  32. Generalitat de Catalunya (2008), Un Pacte Per Viure Junts i JuntesPacte Nacional per a la immigració (Barcelona: Departament d’Acció Social i Ciutadania).
  33. Generalitat de Catalunya (2009), Pla de ciutadania i immigració 2009–2012 (Barcelona: Departament d’Acció Social i Ciutadania).
  34. Generalitat de Catalunya (2010),  Llei d’acollida de les persones immigrades i les retornades   a Catalunya. (Barcelona) [Cyrchwyd: 3 Mawrth 2013].
  35. Generalitat de Catalunya (2016), Pla de Ciutadania i de les Migracions 2017–2020, <https:// _ Participacio ́ _ PCM17-20 _  _ versio ́ _ final _ .pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 13 Mawrth 2020].
  36. Generalitat de Catalunya (2017), Language Policy Report, < content/documents/informepl/arxius/IPL2017 _ en.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 12 Chwefror 2020]. Generalitat de Catalunya (2018a), Pacte Nacional per a la Interculturalitat Document marcper al procés participatiu, < file/1115/2019 _ 10 _ 10 _ Document _ 1 _ PNI _ - _ v2.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 8 Mawrth 2020].
  37. Generalitat de Catalunya (2018b), Informe de Política Lingüística 2018, <https://llengua.> [Cyrchwyd: 12 Mai 2020].
  38. Generalitat de Catalunya (2018c), Procés participatiu del Pacte Nacional per a la Interculturalitat (PNI), <> [Cyrchwyd: 2 Mawrth 2020].
  39. Giles, H. et al. (1977), ‘Towards a Theory of Language in Ethnic Group Relations’, Giles, H. (gol.), Language, Ethnicity, and Intergroup Relations (New York: Academic Press).
  40. Gobierno    de    España    (1978),    Constitución    Española,  < _ espa%C3%B1ola _ de _ 1978> [Cyrchwyd: 8 Mawrth 2013].
  41. Guest, G., Bunce, A., a Johnson, L. (2006), ‘How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability’, Field Methods, 18 (1), 59–82.
  42. Hepburn, E. (2009a), ‘Regionalist Party Mobilisation on Immigration’, West European Politics, 32 (3), 514–35.
  43. Hepburn, E. (2009b), ‘Re-conceptualizing Substate Mobilization’, Regional & Federal Studies, 19 (4/5).
  44. Hepburn, E. (2010), ‘Citizens of the Region: Party Conceptions of Regional Citizenship and Immigrant Integration’, European Journal of Political Research, 50 (4), 504–29.
  45. Hepburn, E., a Rosie, M. (2014), ‘Immigration, Nationalism and Politics in Scotland’, Hepburn,  E.,  a  Zapata-Barrero,  R.  (goln),  The  Politics  of  Immigration  in   Multi- level States: Governance and Political Parties, tt. 241–60 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan).
  46. Hepburn, E., a Zapata-Barrero, R. (goln) (2014), The Politics  of  Immigration  in  Multi- Level States: Governance and Political Parties (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  47. Higham, G. (2020), Creu Dinasyddiaeth i Gymru: Mewnfudo Rhyngwladol a’r Gymraeg (Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru).
  48. Hogan-Brun, G. et al. (goln) (2009), Discourses on language and integration: criticalperspectives on language testing regimes in Europe (Amsterdam, USA: John Benjamins).
  49. Hornberger, N. (gol.) (2011), Can Schools Save Indigenous Language? Policy and Practice on Four Continents (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  50. IDESCAT (2009), Projeccions de població 2021–2041 (base 2008) Principals resultats (Barcelona: IDESCAT).
  51. IDESCAT (2013), Institut d’Estadística de Catalunya (Barcelona: IDESCAT).
  52. IDESCAT       (2018),    Població     segons      llengua     habitual     < pub/?id=eulp&n=3192&lang=en> [Cyrchwyd: 15 Mai 2018].
  53. Ignatieff, M. (1994), Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux).
  54. Jeram, S., ac Adam, I. (2015), ‘Diversity and nationalism in the Basque Country and Flanders: understanding immigrants as fellow minorities’, National Identities, 17 (3), 241–57.
  55. Joppke, C. (2002), ‘Multicultural Citizenship’, yn Isin, E. F., a Turner, B. S. (goln), Handbook of Citizenship Studies, tt. 245–58 (London: Sage).
  56. Juteau, D. (2003), ‘The Citizen Makes an Entrée: Redefining the National Community in Quebec’, Citizenship Studies, 6 (4), 441–58.
  57. Kalekin-Fishman, Devorah, Pitkanen, Pirkko, Verma, Gajendra (goln) (2002), Education and Immigration: Settlement Policies and Current Challenges (London: Routledge).
  58. Keating, M. J. (1996), Nations against the State: The New Politics of Nationalism in Quebec, Catalonia and Scotland (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
  59. Kymlicka, W., a Patten, A. (2003), Language Rights and Political Theory (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  60. Labelle, M., a Rocher, F. (2009), ‘Immigration, Integration and Citizenship Policies in Canada and Quebec. Tug of war between two competing societal projects’, yn Zapata- Barrero, R. (gol), Immigration and self-government of minority nations (Bern:  Peter Lang), tt. 57–86.
  61. Liddicoat, A. J., a Baldauf, R. B. (2008), ‘Language Planning in Local Contexts: Agents, Contexts and Interactions’, yn Liddicoat, A. J., a Baldauf, R. B. (goln),  Language Planning in Local Contexts (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters), tt. 3–17.
  62. Lilleker, D. G. (2003), ‘Doing Politics. Interviewing the Political Elite: Navigating a Potential Minefield’, Politics, 23 (3), 207–14.
  63. Llywodraeth Cymru (2017), Cymraeg 2050: Miliwn o siaradwyr, < sites/default/files/publications/2019-03/cymraeg-2050-strategaeth-y-gymraeg-v1-1.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 20 Mai 2020].
  64. May, S. (2012), Language and Minority Rights, 2il argraffiad (New York: Routledge).
  65. McRae, K. D. (1975), ‘The principle of territoriality and the principle of personality in multilingual states’, International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 4, 33–54.
  66. Muñoz, C. (2013), ‘Age Effects in SLA’, yn Robinson, P. (gol.), The Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition (New York: Routledge), tt. 12–15.
  67. Myhill, J. (1999), ‘Identity, Territoriality and Minority Language Survival’, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 20 (1), 34–50.
  68. Nelde, P. et al. (1996), Euromosaic: The Production and Reproduction of the Minority Language Groups of the European Union (Brussels: European Commission).
  69. Oakes, L. (2004), ‘French – a language for everyone in Québec?’, Nations and Nationalism, 10 (4), 539–58.
  70. O’Reilly, M., a Parker, N. (2012), ‘Unsatisfactory saturation: A critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research’, Qualitative Research Journal, 1–8.
  71. Penninx, R. (2005), ‘Bridges between research and policy? The case of post-war immigration and integration policies in the Netherlands’, International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 7 (1), 33–48.
  72. Penninx, R. (2013), ‘International migration and multilevel governance in Europe’, yn Bilger, V., Klinglmair S., a Hofmann M. (goln), 10 observations on  the  future  of  migration: costs, benefits and policy responses (Vienna: International Centre for Migration Policy Development), tt. 109–24.
  73. Ritchie, J., a Spencer, L. (2002), ‘Qualitative Data Analysis for Policy Research’, yn Huberman,
  74. A. M., a Miles, M. B. (goln), The Qualitative Research Companion (Thousand Oaks: Sage), tt. 305–29.
  75. Shafir, G.  (1995),  Immigrants  and  Nationalists:  Ethnic  Conflict  and  Accommodation in Catalonia, the Basque Country, Latvia and Estonia (Albany, NY: New York State University Press).
  76. Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1990), Language, Literacy and Minorities (London: The Minority Rights Group).
  77. Solé, C., a Parella, S. (2008), ‘El modelo de gestión de las migraciones en Cataluña: ¿una “vía catalana” de integración?’, PolíticaySociedad, 45 (1), 85–101.
  78. Spolsky, B. (2004), Language Policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
  79. Stavros, C., a Westberg, K. (2009), ‘Using triangulation and multiple case studies to advance relationship marketing theory’, Qualitative Market Research, 12 (3), 307–20.
  80. Stevens, G. (2013), ‘Age and Second Language Acquisition Among Immigrants’, yn Grigorenko,
  81. E. L. (gol.), US Immigration and Education (New York: Springer), tt. 235–48.
  82. Van der Zwet, A. (2016), ‘To see ourselves as others see us: identity and attitudes towards immigration amongst civic nationalists’, Journal of Ethnic  and  Migration  Studies,  42 (8), 1242–56.
  83. Vertovec, S. (2007), ‘Super-diversity and its  implications’,  Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30  (6), 1024–54.
  84. Vervotec, S. (2010), ‘Reading “Super-Diversity Representations: Powers and Pitfalls”’, yn Anderson, B., a Keith, M. (goln), Migration: A COMPAS Anthology (Oxford: COMPAS <> [Cyrchwyd: 15 Medi 2020].
  85. Vila i Moreno, F. X. (2004), ‘Barcelona (Catalonia): Language, Education and Ideology in an Integrationist Society’, yn Van Mensel, L. et  al. (gol.),  Language, Attitudes &  Education in Multilingual Cities (Brussel: Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie Van Belgie), tt. 53–86.
  86. Walker, J. L. (2012), ‘The use of saturation in qualitative research’, Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 22 (2), 37–46.
  87. Williams, D. G. (2012), ‘Your multicultural nation is not necessarily mine’,  Institute  of  Welsh Affairs, < not-necessarily-mine/>, 1 Tachwedd [Cyrchwyd: 3 Mai 2020].
  88. Zapata-Barrero, R. (2006), ‘Immigration, autonomie politique et gestion de l’identité: le cas de la Catalogne’, Outre-terre, 17, 189–209.
  89. Zapata-Barrero, R. (2007), ‘Setting a Research Agenda on the Interaction Between Cultural Demands of Immigrants and Minority Nations’, Journal of Immigrant &  Refugee  Studies, 5 (4), 1–25.
  90. Zapata-Barrero, R. (2009), ‘Building a Public Philosophy of Immigration in Catalonia. The terms of the debate’, Zapata-Barrero, R. (gol.), Immigration and self-government of Minority Nation (Bern: Peter Lang), 125–53