‘Beth yw’r ots gennyf i am Gymru?’: Astudiaeth o allfudo a dyheadau pobl ifanc o’r bröydd Cymraeg

‘Beth yw’r ots gennyf i am Gymru?’: Astudiaeth o allfudo a dyheadau pobl ifanc o’r bröydd Cymraeg
(‘Beth yw’r ots gennyf i am Gymru?’: The out-migration and aspirations of young people from the Welsh heartlands)

Lowri Cunnington Wynn

This article considers the out-migration of young people from the Welsh-speaking heartlands in terms of their aspirations and hopes for the future. The original doctoral research (2014), is based on Hywel Jones’ (2010) work, which argues that young people born outside of Wales are four times more likely to migrate from Wales than young people born here. The research attempts to establish the main factors that affect rates of out-migration among young people born outside of Wales and those born into non-native families. The article concludes that the main drivers of rates of out-migration among this group are factors such as sense of belonging and the extent of community integration, rather than solely economic factors. In particular, it examines how culture, nationality, and considerations pertaining to the Welsh language have an impact on this trend, which has important implications in terms of the linguistic retention of the ‘traditional’ Welsh speaking areas.

Photo: Samdorob, CC BY-SA 3.0.


  	Lowri Cunnington Wynn, ‘“Beth yw’r ots gennyf i am Gymru?”: Astudiaeth o allfudo a dyheadau pobl ifanc o’r bröydd Cymraeg’, Gwerddon, 28, March 2019, 43–63.


    Welsh-speaking heartlands, out-migration, identity, belonging, language planning.


  1. Aitchison, J., Carter, H., a Rogers, D. (1989), Immigration and The Welsh Language: A Case Study of Tregaron and its Region (Aberystwyth: Rural Surveys Research Unit, University of Aberystwyth).
  2. Aitchison, J., a Carter, H. (1994), A Geography of The Welsh Language 1961–1991 (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).
  3. Aitchison, J., a Carter, H. (2000), Language, Economy and Society: The Changing Fortunes of the Welsh Language in the Twentieth Century (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).
  4. Baker, C. (1985), Aspects of Bilingualism in Wales (England: Clevedon, Avon).
  5. Barth, F. (1969), Ethnic Groups and Boundaries (Illinois, UDA: Waveland Press).
  6. Belot, M., a Ermisch, J. (2006), Friendship Ties and Geographical Mobility: Evidence from the BHPS, <https://www.iser.essex.ac.uk/research/publications/working-papers/iser/2006-33.pdf>[Cyrchwyd: 3 Mawrth 2018].
  7. Blackaby, D., a Drinkwater, S. (2004), Migration and Labour Market Differences: The Case of Wales, <https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=585309> [Cyrchwyd: 11 Medi 2018].
  8. Bond, R., Charsley,K., a Grundy, S. (2008), Migration, Settlement and Identity Among English Graduates in Scotland, <http://www.lse.ac.uk/socialPolicy/Researchcentresandgroups/BSPS/pdfs/2008_migration_Bond_full.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 23 Tachwedd 2018].
  9. Cohen, P. H. (1997), ‘Beyond the Community Romance’, Soundings, 5, Mawrth, 29–51, <http://banmarchive.org.uk/collections/soundings/05_29.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 10 Tachwedd 2018].
  10. Cohen, A. P. (1982), ‘Belonging: The Experience of Culture’, yn Cohen, A. P. (gol.), Belonging, Identity and Social Organisation in British Rural Cultures (Manchester: Manchester University Press), tt. 1–19.
  11. Comisiynydd y Gymraeg (2012), Darlun Ystadegol o Sefyllfa’r Gymraeg, <http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.cymru/Cymraeg/Polisi,%20ymchwil%20a%20data/Data%20Cyfrifiad/Pages/DarlunystadegolosefyllfarGymraeg.aspx> [Cyrchwyd: 11 Mai 2017].
  12. Comisiynydd y Gymraeg (2016), Sefyllfa’r Iaith Gymraeg 2012–2015/The Position of the Welsh Language 2012–2015, <http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.cymru/Cymraeg/Rhestr%20Cyhoeddiadau/Adroddiad%205-mlynedd%20-%205-year%20Report.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 1 Ebrill 2018].
  13. Comisiynydd y Gymraeg (dim dyddiad), Cyfrifiad 2011: canlyniadau yn ôl awdurdod lleol, <http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.cymru/Cymraeg/Polisi,%20ymchwil%20a%20data/Data%20Cyfrifiad/Pages/Cyfrifiad2011canlyniadauynolawdurdodlleol.aspx> [Cyrchwyd: 11 Mai 2017].
  14. Daniel, G. H. (1940), ‘Some Factors Affecting the Movement of Labour’, Oxford Economic Papers, 3, 144–79.
  15. Day, G., a Fitton, M. (1975), Religion and Social Status in Rural Wales: ‘Buchedd’ and its lessons for concepts of stratification in community studies, <https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1975.tb00546.x> [Cyrchwyd: 31 Hydref 2018].
  16. Day, G. (2002), Making Sense of Wales: A Sociological Perspective (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).
  17. Emmett, I. (1982), ‘Fe godwn ni eto: stasis and change in a Welsh industrial town’, yn Cohen, A. P. (gol.), Belonging: Identity and Social Organisation in British Rural Cultures (Manchester: Manchester University Press), tt. 165–99.
  18. Golwg360 (2013), Adam Price: un cyngor i’r Fro Gymraeg, 22 Mawrth, <https://golwg360.cymru/newyddion/cymru/104161-adam-price-un-cyngor-i-r-fro-gymraeg> [Cyrchwyd: 11 Mai 2017].
  19. Llywodraeth Cymru (2012), Iaith Fyw, Iaith Byw: Strategaeth y Gymraeg 2012–2017, <http://gov.wales/docs/dcells/publications/122902wls201217cy.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 11 Tachwedd 2018].
  20. Llywodraeth Cymru, Stats Cymru: Y Gymraeg, <https://statscymru.llyw.cymru/Catalogue/Welsh-language> [Cyrchwyd: 1 Tachwedd 2018].
  21. Llywodraeth Cymru (2015), Defnyddio’r Gymraeg yn y Gymuned, <http://gov.wales/docs/caecd/research/2015/151007-welsh-language-use-community-research-study-cy.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 1 Hydref 2018].
  22. Hodges, R. S. (2012), ‘Welsh-medium education and parental incentives – the case of the Rhymni Valley, Caerffili’, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15 (3), 355–73.
  23. Jones, H. (2005), Analysis of Census Results Pertaining to Language Transmission, Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg, <http://www.byig-wlb.org.uk/cymraeg/cyhoeddiadau> [Cyrchwyd: 20 Mehefin 2009].
  24. James, E. (2003), ‘Research on your own doorstep: Welsh Rural Communities and the Perceived Effects of In-migration’, yn Davies, C. H., a Jones, S. (goln), Welsh communities: new ethnographic perspectives (Cardiff: University of Wales Press), tt. 49–79.
  25. Jones, H. (2010), ‘Welsh Speakers: Age Profile and Outmigration’, yn Morris, D. (gol.), Welsh in the Twenty First Century (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).
  26. Levy, M. B., a Waldycki, W. J. (1973), ‘The Influence of Family and Friends on Geographical labor Mobility: an International Comparison’, The Review of Economics and Statistics, 55, 198–203.
  27. Mac-Giolla Chriost, D. (2012), ‘A Question of National Identity or Minority Rights? The Changing Status of the Irish Language in Ireland since 1922’, Nations and Nationalism, 18 (3), 398–416.
  28. Morris, D. (1989), ‘A Study of Language Contact and Social Networks in Ynys Môn’, Contemporary Wales, 3, 99–117.
  29. Morris, D., a Williams, G. (2000), Language Planning and Language Use: Welsh in a Global Age (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).
  30. Nagel, C. (2004), ‘Citizenship, Identity and Transnational Migration: Arab Immigrants to the United States’, Space and Polity, 8 (1), 3–24.
  31. Ó Tuathaigh, M. A. G. (1990), The Development of the Gaeltacht as a Bilingual Entity (Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann).
  32. Scottish Government Social Research (2008), Drivers of Youth Outmigration from Rural Scotland: Key Issues and Annotated Bibliography, <http://www.gov.scot/resource/doc/210054/0055504.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 3 Tachwedd 2018].
  33. Thomas, B. (1930), ‘The Migration of Labour into the Glamorganshire Coalfield (1861– 1911)’, Economica, 30, 275–94.
  34. Williams, C. (2000), Language Reviltalization: Policy and Planning in Wales (Cardiff: University of Wales Press).
  35. Williams, C. H. (2017), ‘Policy review: Wake me up in 2050! Formulating Language Policy in Wales’, Languages, Society & Policy, <https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.9802> [Cyrchwyd: 22 Tachwedd 2018]. Rhif 2