Y Sgrym: Cyfiawnder a Chyfrifoldeb


Y Sgrym: Cyfiawnder a Chyfrifoldeb
(The Scrum: Justice and Responsibility)

Carwyn Jones & Neil Hennessy

In this article we argue that the current laws of the scrum in Rugby Union inevitably lead to unfairness. The scrum is so biomechanically complex that it is impossible for a referee to reliably determine who deserves punishment when the scrum collapses. Consequently, undeserved penalties are inevitable. Furthermore, the players who are penalised may not be causally or morally responsible for the offence. Under certain pressures, they have no choice but to collapse. Resolving the issue is not an easy matter. There is an inevitable trade-off to be negotiated between fairness on the one hand and tradition, excitement and entertainment on the other.

Image: Matt Guffey, CC BY-SA 2.0


Reference:

 
  	Carwyn Jones a Neil Hennessy, ‘Y Sgrym: Cyfiawnder a Chyfrifoldeb’, Gwerddon, 25, October 2017, 70–85.
   

Keywords

 
    Rugby, scrum, referee, sports, ethics, merit, fairness, epistemological privilege, ontological authority, offence, rules.
    

Bibliography:

 
  	
  1. Aristotle (1980), Nicomachean Ethics (cyfieithiwyd gan W. D. Ross; diwygiwyd gan J. O. Urmson a J. L. Ackrill) (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  2. Collins, H. (2010), ‘The philosophy of umpiring and the introduction of decision-aid technology’, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 37 (2), 135–46.
  3. Dixon, N. (2000), ‘A justification of moderate patriotism in sport’. Yn Tannsjo, T., a Tamburrini, C. (goln), Values in Sport (London: Routledge), tt. 74–86.
  4. Dixon, N. (2007), ‘The ethics of supporting sports teams’. Yn Morgan, W. J. (gol.), Ethics in Sport, ail argraffiad (Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics), tt. 441–50.
  5. Flanagan, O. (1991), Varieties of Moral Personality: Ethics and Psychological Realism (London: Harvard University Press).
  6. Fuller, L. L. (2000), ‘Eight ways to fail to make a law’. Yn Feinberg, J., a Coleman, J. (goln), Philosophy of Law, 6ed argraffiad (UDA: Wadsworth/Thompsom Learning).
  7. Guttmann, A. (1978), From Ritual to Record: The Nature of Modern Sports (New York: Columbia University Press).
  8. Hwang, J. H., a Kretchmar, R. S. (2010), ‘Aristotle’s golden mean: its implications for the doping debate’, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 37 (1), 102–21.
  9. International Rugby Board (2009), ‘ELV recommendations ratified’. http://www.worldrugby.org/news/24165 [Cyrchwyd: 21 Tachwedd 2015]
  10. International Rugby Board (2013), ‘Referees announced as scrum trials kicks off’. http://www.worldrugby.org/news/33467 [Cyrchwyd: 21 Tachwedd 2015]
  11. Jones, C., a Fleming, S. (2010), ‘The “enforcer” in elite-level sport: a conceptual critique’, Sport, Ethics and Philosophy,4 (3), 306–18.
  12. Jones, C., a Howe, P. D. (2005), ‘The conceptual boundaries of sport for the disabled: classification and athletic performance’, Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 32 (2), 127–40.
  13. Loland, S. (2002), Fair Play in Sport: A Moral Norm System (London: Routledge).
  14. Loland, S. (2007), ‘Justice in Sport’, Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, 1 (1), 78–95.
  15. Orwell, G. (1950), ‘The sporting spirit’, Shooting an Elephant and Other Essays (London: Secker and Warburg).
  16. Peters, R. S. (1981), Moral Development and Moral Education (London: George, Allen and Unwin).
  17. Rawls, J. (1971), A Theory of Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  18. World Rugby (2015), Laws of the Game Rugby Union (Dublin: World Rugby).