Effaith defnyddio Cofion Cyfieithu ar y broses gyfieithu: Ymdrech a chynhyrchiant wrth gyfieithu i’r Gymraeg

Effaith defnyddio Cofion Cyfieithu ar y broses gyfieithu: Ymdrech a chynhyrchiant wrth gyfieithu i’r Gymraeg
(The effect of Translation Memories on the translation process: Effort and productivity in Welsh translation)

Ben Screen

Translation into Welsh has now grown into an important industry, and a number of researchers have linked translation to wider efforts in the field of language planning. This article therefore, keeping in mind the importance of translation to language planning in Wales, intends to investigate the effect that Translation Memories have on particular aspects of the process of translating into Welsh, asking whether there is a place for this technology in a professional context. What contribution can this technology make, then, to translation and language planning in Wales?


  	Ben Screen, ‘Effaith defnyddio Cofion Cyfieithu ar y broses gyfieithu: Ymdrech a chynhyrchiant wrth gyfieithu i’r Gymraeg’, Gwerddon, 23, March 2017, 10–35.


    Professional translation, translation technology, cognitive effort, production of text, Translog, the translation process.


  1. Allen, J. (2003), ‘Post-editing’, yn Somers, H. (gol.), Computers and Translation: A Translator’s Guide (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins’ Publishing Company), tt. 297–319.
  2. Alves, F., a Vale, D. C. (2011), ‘On Drafting and Revision in Translation: A Corpus Linguistic Oriented Analysis of Translation Process Data’, Translation: Computation, Corpora, Cognition 1(1), 105–22.
  3. Anderson, J. R. (2009), Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications, 7fed argraffiad (New York: Worth Publishers).
  4. Arthern, P. J. (1979), ‘Machine translation and computerized terminology systems: a translator's viewpoint’, papur a gyflwynwyd yng Nghynhadledd Translating and the computer (Llundain), 14eg Tachwedd 1978.
  5. Bowker, L. (2002), Computer-Aided Translation Technology (Ottowa: University of Ottowa Press).
  6. Butterworth, B. (1980), ‘Evidence from Pauses in Speech’, yn Butterworth, B. (gol.), Language Production. Volume 1: Speech and Talk (London: Academic Press), tt. 155–77.
  7. Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg. (2009), Cofiwch eich cyfieithiadau <http://www.webarchive.org.uk/wayback/archive/20120306053839/http://www.byig-wlb.org.uk/Cymraeg/newyddion/Pages/COFiwcheichcyfieithiadauCymraeg.aspx> [Cyrchwyd: 12 Chwefror 2015].
  8. Carl, M. et al. (2010), Long Distance Revisions in Draffting and Post-editing <http://engerom.ku.dk/english/staff/?pure=files%2F131448111%2F2010_Long_Distance_Revisions_CarlKayJensen.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 29 Medi 2015].
  9. Comisiynydd y Gymraeg (2012), Dogfen Cyngor: Drafftio Dwyieithog, Cyfieithu a Chyfieithu ar y Pryd (Caerdydd: Comisiynydd y Gymraeg).
  10. Comisiynydd y Gymraeg (2016), Sefyllfa’r Iaith Gymraeg 2012–2015: Adroddiad 5-mlynedd (Caerdydd: Comisiynydd y Gymraeg).
  11. Dragsted, B. (2010), ‘Co-ordination of Reading and Writing Processes in Translation: An Eye on Unchartered Territory’, yn Shreve, G., ac Angelone, E. (goln), Translation and Cognition (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins’ Publishing Company), tt. 41–63.
  12. Dragsted, B. (2005), ‘Segmentation in Translation: Differences across Levels of Experience and Difficulty’, Target 17 (1), 49–70.
  13. Dragsted, B., a Carl, M. (2013), ‘Towards a Classification of Translation Styles based on Eye-Tracking and Key-logging Data’, Journal of Writing Research, 5 (1), 133–58.
  14. Duckworth, K. L. et al. (2002), ‘The Automatic Evaluation of Novel Stimuli’, Psychological Science, 13 (6) , 513–19.
  15. Eklundh, K. (1994), ‘Linear and Non-linear Strategies in Computer-Based Writing’, Computers and Composition, 11, 203–16.
  16. Englund-Dimitrova, B. (2005), Expertise and Explication in the Translation Process (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins’ Publishing Company).
  17. Federico, M. et al. (2012), ‘Measuring user productivity in machine translation enhanced computer assisted translation’, Proceedings of the Second International Conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas (AMTA). Ar gael: <http://amta2012.amtaweb.org/AMTA2012Files/papers/123.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 7 Mawrth 2016].
  18. Gile, D. (1995), Basic Concepts and Models for Interpreter and Translator Training, argraffiad 1af (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins’ Publishing Company).
  19. González, M. G. (2005), ‘Translation of minority languages in bilingual and multilingual communities’, yn Branchadell, A., a West, L. M. (goln), Less Translated Languages (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company), tt. 105–25.
  20. Guerberof, A. A. (2009), ‘Productivity and quality in the post-editing of outputs from translation memories and machine translation’, International Journal of Localization,7 (1), 11–21.
  21. Guerberof, A.A., ‘Productivity and Quality in the Post-editing of Outputs from Translation Memories and Machine Translation’, traethawd PhD, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, Virgili, 2012.
  22. Guerberof, A. A. (2014), ‘The Role of Professional Experience in Post-editing from a Quality and Productivity Perspective’, yn O’Brien et al. (goln), Post-editing of Machine Translation: Processes and Applications (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), tt. 51–76.
  23. Hayes, J. R. (1996), ‘A New Framework for Understanding Cognition and Affect in Writing’, yn Levy, C. M., a Ransdell, S. (goln), The Science of Writing: Theories, Methods, Individual Differences, and Applications (Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), tt. 1–27.
  24. Hutchins, J. (1998), ‘The Origins of the Translators’ Workstation’, Machine Translation,13 (4), 287–307.
  25. Jakobsen, A. L. (2003), ‘Effects of Think Aloud on Translation Speed, Revision and Segmentation’, yn Alves, F. (gol.), Triangulating Translation (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins’ Publishing Company), tt. 69–97.
  26. Jakobsen, A. L. (2005), ‘Investigating Expert Translators’ Processing Knowledge’, yn Dam, H. V., Engberg, J., a Gerzymisch-Arbogast, H. (goln), Knowledge Systems and Translation (Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter), tt. 173–93.
  27. Jakobsen, A. L. (2006), ‘Research Methods in Translation – Translog’, yn Sullivan, K. P. H., a Lindgren, E. (goln), Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing (Oxford: Elsevier), tt. 95–107.
  28. Jakobsen, A. L. (2002), ‘Translation Drafting by Professional Translators and by Translation Students’, yn Hansen, G. (gol.), Empirical Translation Studies (Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur), tt. 191–204.
  29. Jakobsen, A. L., a Jensen K. (2008), ‘Eye movement behaviour across four different types of reading task’, yn Göpferich, S., Jakobsen, A. L., a Mees, I. M. (goln), Looking at Eyes: Eye-Tracking Studies of Reading and Translation Processing (Copenhagen: Samfundslitteratur), tt. 103–24.
  30. Jensen, K., ‘Allocation of Cognitive Resources in Translation: An Eye-Tracking and Key-logging Study’, traethawd PhD, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, 2011.
  31. Kanavos, P., a Kartsaklis, D. (2010), ‘Integrating Machine Translation with Translation Memory: A Practical Approach’, yn Zhechev, V. (gol.), Proceedings of the Second Joint EM+/CNGL Workshop “Bringing MT to the User: Research on Integrating MT in the Translation Industry”, American Machine Translation Association (AMTA), Denver, 4 Tachwedd, 11–20.
  32. Kaufmann, J. (2010), ‘Cyfieithu a Pholisi Iaith’, Contemporary Wales, 23(1), 171–83.
  33. Kaufmann, J. (2012), ‘The Darkened glass of bilingualism? Translation and interpreting in Welsh language planning’, Translation Studies, 5 (3), 327–44.
  34. Krings, H. P. (2001), Repairing Texts: Empirical Investigations of Machine Translation Post-Editing Processes (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press).
  35. Kumpulainen, M. (2015), ‘On the operationalisation of 'pauses' in Translation Process Research’, Translation and Interpreting, 7 (1), 47–58.
  36. Lacruz, I., a Shreve, G. (2014), ‘Pauses and Cognitive Effort in Post-Editing’, yn O'Brien, S. et al. (goln), Post-Editing of Machine Translation: Processes and Applications (Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing), tt. 246–4.
  37. Leitjen, M., a Van Waes, L. (2013), ‘Keystroke Logging in Writing Research: Using Inputlog to Analyze and Visualize Writing Processes’, Written Communication, 30 (3), 358–92.
  38. Llywodraeth Cymru (2014), Iaith fyw: iaith byw – Bwrw mlaen. Datganiad Polisi (Caerdydd: Llywodraeth Cymru).
  39. Llywodraeth Cymru (2012), Iaith fyw: iaith byw – Strategaeth y Gymraeg 2012–2017 (Caerdydd: Llywodraeth Cymru).
  40. Llywodraeth Cymru (2016), Iaith, Gwaith a Gwasanaethau Dwyieithog: Adroddiad y Gweithgor ar yr Iaith Gymraeg a Llywodraeth Leol (Caerdydd: Llywodraeth Cymru).
  41. Martín, R. M. (2012), ‘Just a Matter of Scope: Mental Load in Translation Process Research’, Translation Spaces, 1, 169–88.
  42. Melby, A. (1981), ‘A bilingual concordance system and its use in linguistic studies’, yn Gutwinski, W., a Jolly, G. (goln), The Eighth LACUS Forum 1981 (Columbia: Honrbeam Press), tt. 541–9.
  43. Miller, K. S., a Sullivan, K. P. H. (2006), ‘Keystroke Logging: An Introduction’, yn Sullivan, K. P. H., a Lindgren, E. (goln), Computer Keystroke Logging and Writing (Oxford: Elsevier), tt. 1–11.
  44. Mossop, B. (2014), Revising and Editing for Translators, 3ydd argraffiad (London: Routledge).
  45. Newell, A., a Simon, H. (1972), Human Problem Solving (New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs).
  46. Núñez, G. G. (2013), ‘Translating for linguistic minorities in Northern Ireland: A look at translation policy in the judiciary, healthcare and local government’, Current Issues in Language Planning, 14 (3–4), 474–89.
  47. O'Brien, S. (2007), ‘Eye-tracking and Translation Memory Matches’, Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, 14 (3), 185–205.
  48. O'Brien, S., ‘Machine-Translatability and Post-Editing Effort: An Empirical Study using Translog and Choice Network Analysis’, traethawd PhD, Dublin City University, Dublin, 2006.
  49. O'Brien, S. (2006b), ‘Pauses as Indicators of Cognitive Effort in Post-editing Machine Translation Output’, Across Languages and Cultures, 7 (1), 1–21.
  50. O'Brien, S., a Saldanha, G. (2013), Research Methodologies in Translation Studies (London: Routledge).
  51. O’Connell, E., a Walsh, J. (2006), ‘The Translation Boom: Irish and Language Planning in the Twenty-First Century’, Administration, 54 (3), 22–43.
  52. Palumbo, G. (2009), Key Terms in Translation Studies (London: Continuum).
  53. Pavlović, N., a Jensen, K. (2009), ‘Eye tracking translation directionality’, yn Pym. A., a Perekrestenko, A. (goln), Translation Research Projects 2 (Tarragona: Universitat Rovira i Virgili), tt. 101–19.
  54. Prys, D. (2014), Nodyn Cyngor
  55. <http://techiaith.bangor.ac.uk/nodyn-cyngor/> [Cyrchwyd: 6 Ionawr 2016].
  56. Prys, G., a Prys, D. (2015), ‘Meddalwedd a Thechnoleg Cyfieithu’, yn Prys, D., a Trefor, R. (goln), Ysgrifau a Chanllawiau Cyfieithu <https://llyfrgell.porth.ac.uk/view2.aspx?id=1414~4k~jCaIVfFR> (Caerfyrddin: Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol), 67–76 [Cyrchwyd: 15 Awst 2016].
  57. Quah, C. K. (2006), Translation and Technology (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).
  58. Reinke, U. (2013), ‘State of the Art in Translation Memory Technology’, T3: Computation, Corpora, Cognition, 3 (1), 27–45.
  59. Schilperoord, J. (1996), It's About Time: Temporal Aspects of Cognitive Processes in Text Production (Amsterdam: Rodopi).
  60. Screen, B. (2016), ‘What place for technology in the translation of Welsh? Language technology, language planning and the professional translation of Welsh’, papur a gyflwynwyd yn ail gynhadledd Astudiaethau Celtaidd Poznán, Gwlad Pwyl, 5–6 Gorffennaf 2016 <http://orca.cf.ac.uk/92389/1/Papur%20Poznan.pdf> [Cyrchwyd: 15 Awst 2016].
  61. Sharmin, S. et al.(2008), ‘Where and for how long do translation students look at the screen while translating?’, yn Göpferich, S. et al. (goln), Looking at Eyes: Eye-tracking Studies of Reading and Translation Processing (Cophenhagen: Samsfundslitteratur), tt. 31–51.
  62. Shreve, G., a Diamond, B. (1997), ‘Cognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting: Critical Issues’, yn Danks, J. et al. (goln), Cognitive Processes in Translation and Interpreting (Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications), tt. 233–52.
  63. Somers, H. (2003), ‘Translation Memory Systems’, yn Somers, H. (gol.), Computers and Translation: A Translators' Guide (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins' Publishing Company), tt. 31–49.
  64. Vandepitte, S. et al. (2015), ‘Process and Text Studies of a Translation Problem’, yn Ferreira, A., a Schwieter, J. W. (goln), Psycholinguistic and Cognitive Inquiries into Translation and Interpreting (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins’ Publishing Company), tt. 127–45.
  65. Watkins, G. (2010), Crynodeb o Ganlyniadau Holiadur Technoleg Iaith
  66. <http://gareth-watkins.co.uk/cymraeg/canlyniadau_arolwg_cyfieithwyr.html> [Cyrchwyd: 30 Medi 2015].
  67. Watkins, G., ‘Translation Tools and Technologies in the Welsh Language Context’, traethawd PhD, Prifysgol Abertawe, Abertawe, 2013.