Dadansoddiad o ddefnydd athrawon dan hyfforddiant o gyfnewid cod mewn dosbarth uwchradd dwyieithog: Achos o Gymru


Dadansoddiad o ddefnydd athrawon dan hyfforddiant o gyfnewid cod mewn dosbarth uwchradd dwyieithog: Achos o Gymru
Jessica Clapham

Mae'r llenyddiaeth yn cynnwys sawl astudiaeth ar gyfnewid cod. Mae’r dull cymdeithasol- ddiwylliannol o astudio rhyngweithio yn y dosbarth fel y’i disgrifir gan Mercer (2000) yn seiliedig ar ddadansoddiad manwl o ddisgwrs dosbarthiadau iaith. Nododd Mercer nifer o dechnegau iaith a ddefnyddir gan athrawon.

Mae’r erthygl hon yn dadansoddi safbwyntiau athrawon dan hyfforddiant ar gyfnewid cod fel ymarfer yn yr ystafell ddosbarth. Yn yr astudiaeth, cynhaliwyd archwiliad o ymarfer dosbarth dwy athrawes dan hyfforddiant oedd yn ddwyieithog mewn Cymraeg a Saesneg. Arsylwyd y ddwy a chofnodwyd eu haddysgu. Hefyd cynhaliwyd cyfweliadau gyda’r athrawon dan hyfforddiant er mwyn eu holi am eu hagweddau at y defnydd o’r iaith gyntaf mewn dosbarth uwchradd lle mae’r Saesneg yn ail iaith.

Dadansoddir y data a gasglwyd gan ddefnyddio dulliau dadansoddi disgwrs beirniadol. Ystyrir yn benodol i ba raddau yr oedd yr athrawon dan hyfforddiant yn llwyddo i ddysgu mewn modd oedd o fewn cyrraedd y disgyblion dwyieithog o dan eu gofal. Roedd yr achlysuron pan oedd yr athrawon yn newid o’r Saesneg i'r Gymraeg am funud i weld yn cyfateb i’r swyddogaethau cyfnewid cod a nodwyd gan Camilleri. Mae’r cyfnewid cod yn awgrymu ffordd gyfreithlon o ddefnyddio adnoddau iaith cyffredin i sgaffaldio dysgu disgyblion.


Cyfeiriad:

 
  	Jessica J. Clapham, 'Dadansoddiad o ddefnydd athrawon dan hyfforddiant o gyfnewid cod mewn dosbarth uwchradd dwyieithog: Achos o Gymru', Gwerddon, 10/11, Awst 2012, 158-95
   

Allweddeiriau

 
    Hyfforddiant athrawon, cyfnewid cod, dwyieithrwydd, addysg.
    

Llyfryddiaeth:

 
  	
  1. Auer, P. (1984), Bilingual Conversation (Amsterdam: Benjamins).
  2. Auer, P. (1990), A Discussion paper on code alternation, European Science Foundation Network on Code-switching and Language Contact: Papers for the Workshop on Concepts, Methodology and Data (Strasbourg: European Science Foundation), tt. 69-87.
  3. Auer, P. (1998), ‘Introduction: Bilingual conversation revisited’, yn Auer, P. (gol.), Codeswitching in conversation (London: Routledge), tt. 1-24.
  4. Auerbach, E.R. (1993), ‘Reexamining English Only in the ESL Classroom’, TESOL Quarterly, 27, 9-32.
  5. Baker, C. (2003), Foundations of Bilingual education and Bilingualism (4ydd argraffiad, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).
  6. Baetens Beardsmore, H. (2003), ‘Who is afraid of bilingualism?’, Special issue in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25 (2 & 3).
  7. Benwell, B. a Stokoe, E. H. (2002), ‘Constructing Discussion Tasks in University Tutorials: Shifting Dynamics and Identities’, Discourse Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal for the study of Text and Talk, 4 (4), Tachwedd, 429-53.
  8. Bernstein, B. (1981), ‘Codes, modalities, and the process of cultural reproduction: A model’, Language in Society, 10, 327-63.
  9. Bhaskar, R. (1986), Scientific Realism and Human Emancipation (London: Verso).
  10. Block, D. (2003), The Social Turn in Second Language Acquisition (Washington: Georgetown University Press.
  11. Bourne, J. (2001), ‘Discourse and Identities in a Multi-lingual Primary Classroom’, Oxford Review of Education, 27 (1), 103-14.
  12. Brentnall, J., Cann, J., Williams, C., et.al. (2009), Language in Multilingual Wales (Bangor: Bangor University Press, Educational Transactions).
  13. Camilleri, A. (1996), ‘Language Values and Identities: Code Switching in Secondary Classrooms in Malta’, Linguistics and Education, 8, 85-103.
  14. Canagarajah, A. S. (1999), Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  15. Chouliaraki, L. (1996), ‘Regulative Practices in a “progressivist” Classroom: “Good habits” as a “Disciplinary Technology”’, Language and Education, 10 (2 & 3), tt. 103-8.
  16. Chouliaraki, L. a Fairclough, N. (1999), Discourse in late modernity: Rethinking critical discourse analysis (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).
  17. Clark, R. ac Ivanic, R. (1997), The Politics of Writing (London: Routledge).
  18. Coffin, C. (2001), ‘Theoretical Approaches to Written Language – A TESOL perspective’, yn Burns, A. and Coffin, C. (goln.), Analysing English in a Global Context – A Reader (London: Routledge).
  19. Cook, G. (2010), Translation in Language Teaching: An Argument for Reassessment (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  20. Cook V. (gol.), (2003), Effects of the Second Language on the First (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).
  21. Cook, V. J. & Bassetti, B. (goln.), (2010), Language and Bilingual Cognition (London: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis).
  22. Coulthard, M. (gol.), (1992), Advances in Spoken Discourse Analysis (London: Routledge).
  23. Cummins, J. (1991), ‘Empowering minority students’, yn Minami, M. a Kennedy, P., Language issues in literacy and bilingual/multicultural education (Cambridge MA: Harvard Educational Reprint Series).
  24. Edwards, D. & Mercer, N. (1987), Common knowledge: the development of understanding in the classroom (London: Routledge).
  25. Fairclough, N. (1989), Language and Power (London: Longman).
  26. Fairclough, N. (1992), Discourse and Social Change (Cambridge: Polity Press).
  27. Fairclough, N. (1995), Critical Discourse Analysis (London: Longman).
  28. Fairclough, N. (2003), Analysing Discourse: Textual Analysis for Social Research (London: Routledge).
  29. Fairclough, N. a Wodak, R. (1997), ‘Critical Discourse Analysis’, yn Van Dijk, T. (gol.), Discourse Studies. A multidisciplinary introduction (London: Sage), tt. 258-84.
  30. Foucault, M. (1975), ‘The Means of Correct Training’, yn Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison, tt. 170-94, cyf. Sheridan, A. (1991), (Harmondsworth: Penguin).
  31. Garcia, G. (2009), Bilingual Education in the 21st Century (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell).
  32. Giles, H. & Smith, P. M. (1979), ‘Accommodation Theory: Optimal Levels of convergence’, yn Giles, H. a St. Clair, R. N. (goln.), Language and Social Psychology (Oxford: Basil Blackwell), tt. 45-65.
  33. Halliday, M. A. K. (1985), An Introducation to Functional Grammar (London: Arnold).
  34. Halliday, M. A. K. (1993), ‘Towards a language based theory of learning’, Linguistics and Education, 5 (2), tt. 93-116.
  35. Halliday, M. A. K. (1994), An introduction to Functional Grammar (London: Edward Arnold).
  36. Hornberger, N. H. (2003), Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research and Practice in Multilingual Settings (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).
  37. Hoy, D. C. (1986), Foucault: A Critical Reader (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).
  38. Hyland, K. (2002), ‘Genre: Language, Context and Literacy’, Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 113-35.
  39. Kumaravadivelu, B. (1999), ‘Critical classroom discourse analysis’, TESOL Quarterly, 33 (3), 453-84.
  40. Llywodraeth Cymru, Cyfrifiad Ysgolion 2003: Canlyniadau Dros Dro, SDR 51/2003.
  41. acaro, E. (2001), ‘Analysing Student Teachers’ Codeswitching in Foreign Language Classrooms: Theories and decision making’, The Modern Language Journal, 85 (4), 531-48.
  42. Martin-Jones, M. a Heller, M. (1996), ‘Language and Social Reproduction in Multilingual Settings’, Linguistics and Education, 8 (1 & 2), 3-16, 127-37.
  43. Mercer, N. (1995), The guided construction of knowledge: Talk amongst teachers and learners (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).
  44. Myers-Scotton, C. (1993), Social motivations for codeswitching: Evidence from Africa (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
  45. Myers-Scotton, C. & Bolonyai, A. (2001), ‘Calculating speakers: Codeswitching in a rational choice model’, Language in Society, 30, 1-28.
  46. Pavlenko, A. & Blackledge, A. (2004), Negotiation of Identities in Multilingual Contexts (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).
  47. Pavlenko, A. (2005), Emotions and Multilingualism (Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press).
  48. Pennycook, A. (1999), ‘Introduction: Critical approaches to TESOL’, TESOL Quarterly, 33 (3), 329-48.
  49. Pennycook, A. (1994), ‘Incommensurable Discourses?’, Applied Linguistics, 5 (2), 115-38.
  50. Poplack, S. (1980), ‘Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in English y termino en español: towards a typology of codeswitching’, Linguistics, 18, 582-618.
  51. Prahbu. N. S. (1992), ‘The dynamics of the language lesson’, TESOL Quarterly, 26 (2), 225-41.
  52. Rampton, B., Roberts, C., Leung, C., Harris, R. (2002), ‘Methodology in the Analysis of Classroom Discourse’, Applied Linguistics, 23 (3), tt. 373-92.
  53. Richards, K. (2003), Qualitative Inquiry in TESOL (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillian).
  54. Roberts, J. (1998), Language Teacher Education (London: Edward Arnold).
  55. Robson, C. (2002), Real World Research (Oxford: Blackwell).
  56. Sridhar, S. (1994), ‘A reality check for SLA theories’, TESOL Quarterly, 28, yn Canagarajah, A. S. (1999), Resisting Linguistic Imperialism in English Teaching (Oxford: Oxford University Press), tt. 800-5.
  57. Skutnab-Kangas, T. (1990), Language, Literacy and Minorities (London: The Minority Rights Group).
  58. Thomas, G. (2009), How to do Your Research Project (London: Sage).
  59. Turnbull. M. and Dailey-O’Cain, J. (2009), First Languages Use in Second and Foreign Language Learning (Clevedon: Multilingual Matters).
  60. Van Djik, T. (2001), ‘Multidisciplinary CDAs: A plea for diversity’, yn Wodak, R. a Myer, M. (goln.), Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis (London: Sage), tt. 95-121.
  61. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978), Mind in Society (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press).