Natur prosesau caffael iaith gan blant: Marcio cenedl enwau yn y Gymraeg


Natur prosesau caffael iaith gan blant: Marcio cenedl enwau yn y Gymraeg
Enlli Thomas

Mae ymchwil ynghylch caffael cenedl ramadegol wedi dangos, mewn nifer o ieithoedd, fod plant yn cael meistrolaeth ar genedl yn gynnar. Yn aml, yn yr ieithoedd hyn, mae marcio cenedl yn eithaf amlwg ac mae’n cynnig cyfatebiaeth un-i-un glir rhwng marciwr a’r genedl a godiwyd. Yn y Gymraeg, fodd bynnag, mae marcio cenedl yn fwy cymhleth. Mae’n cael ei marcio drwy dreigladau, sef cyfres o newidiadau morffo- ffonolegol sy’n effeithio ar gytseiniaid cyntaf geiriau, ac mae’r mapio rhwng treiglad a chenedl yn eithaf anhryloyw. Defnyddir dau fath o dreiglad i farcio cenedl fenywaidd: mae enwau benywaidd yn cael eu newid gan y fannod benodol ac mae ansoddeiriau sy’n dilyn enwau benywaidd yn cael eu treiglo’n feddal, ac mae cenedl fenywaidd yr ansoddair meddiannol ‘ei’ yn cael ei marcio drwy dreiglo’r enw a newidir yn llaes. Mae’r papur hwn yn cyflwyno dwy astudiaeth sy’n archwilio meistrolaeth gynhyrchiol plant ac oedolion ar genedl fel y’i mynegir drwy dreiglo enwau a newidir gan y fannod benodol, ac ansoddeiriau yn newid enwau.

Gwahoddwyd plant, rhwng 4½ a 9 oed, ac oedolion i gymryd rhan yn yr astudiaethau. Yn gyntaf, cynhaliwyd astudiaeth led-naturiolaidd i gael gwybodaeth am ddefnydd y siaradwyr o farcio cenedl. Yna, defnyddiwyd gweithdrefn Cloze i gymell y siaradwyr i greu ffurfiau gwrywaidd a benywaidd, gyda geiriau go iawn a ffurfiau disynnwyr, mewn amrywiaeth o gyd-destunau ieithyddol. Roedd rhai o’r cyd-destunau hyn yn rhoi awgrym o statws cenedl, ond nid oedd rhai eraill.

Roedd y data a gafwyd yn dangos bod caffael y system genedl Gymraeg yn broses hirfaith, ac nad yw plant wedi meistroli’r system hyd yn oed erbyn 9 oed. Mae siaradwyr Cymraeg, hyd yn oed pan maent yn oedolion, yn rhoi ychydig o sylw, neu ddim, i’r awgrymiadau posibl sy’n bresennol yn y mewnbwn. Mae’r canlyniadau yn awgrymu, pan fo gan iaith system genedl gymhleth sydd wedi’i marcio gan brosesau morffo- ffonolegol anhryloyw, fod y cwrs datblygu yn faith ac yn amrywiol.


Cyfeiriad:

 
  	Enlli Thomas, 'Natur prosesau caffael iaith gan blant: Marcio cenedl enwau yn y Gymraeg', Gwerddon, 1, Ebrill 2007, 53-81.
   

Allweddeiriau

 
    Seicoleg, caffael iaith, cenedl enwau, Cymraeg.
    

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